Ham Radio – How to Read, Draw and Understand Circuit Diagrams

Many new comers to Ham Radio find trying to read and understand a circuit diagram a very daunting task, I have heard some people say that they will never understand how circuits work and how they interact with other circuitry. I was once like that too; none of us was born with knowledge of radio we all need to learn it. The key to understanding is to build simple circuits and understand the laws that tie them all together.

How do you start to learn what component do and how do they achieve it. First of all you must understand that Ham radio is a technical hobby that brings people together from all over the World it’s like a giant social network, every one of those people started somewhere, and here is what I did to help my understanding.

The first law we need to learn is ohms law and how voltage current and resistance is calculated in a simple circuit. You need to buy some resistors, bread board, which is an experimental piece of board where you connect component together by essentially pressing their leads down through the board, small compression clips hold the wires in place. You will also need a meter to measure the various electronic quantities.

You can also us tag board, but you will need a soldering iron, not a bad thing really because if your interest like mine develops into more construction and modifying than actually communicating soldering components on to circuit board is a skill that you will need to practice.

Once you obtain your resistors and the best place to buy them is from the auction websites that you find on the internet. Many sellers provide bags of standard or preferred value resistors very cheaply. Learn ohms law, it not too difficult, Volts is equal to Current multiplied by resistance.

Resistors in series, you simply add them together, 4 ohms plus 4 ohms is equal to 8 ohms, and resistors in parallel with each other effectively half the total resistance, 4×4 = 16, 4+4 = 8, 16 divided by 8 is equal to 2. Solder your components onto your tag board or use your bread board which ever you choose the outcome will be the same. I use bread board for experimental circuits and then usually transfer them on to tag board when making a permanent circuit.

Connect your battery is series and parallel with a battery of about 9 volts and measure the current flowing around the circuit, you need to connect the meter in series with your circuit to measure current, placing the meter probes across a component gives you the voltage across it. There are numerous websites showing you how to do this and some offer an animated description of what is actually happening.

Move onto capacitors and learn the laws surround capacitors in series and parallel, read how the distance of the plates in a variable capacitor change the component; doing so will help you understand how tuning a capacitor alters the frequency in a receiver or transceiver.

Wind inductors or coils with enamelled copper wire onto Dowling which is used as a former, and measure them after you have learnt the core principles of how they work. Understand how the number of coils or turns and diameter of the inductor alters as you change them.

Play around with the coil formula of Diameter of coil squared times, the Number of coils Squared. Divide this by 18 times the diameter of the coil plus 40 times the length of the coil. Keep doing these calculations they seem impossible to you at this stage, but practice makes perfect and before long you will start to understand electronics.

I moved onto building simple crystal sets after learning how individual components work, crystal sets are great fun. If you have developed an understanding of inductors or coils and capacitors you can modify your crystal set to cover other bands once you have learned how coils and capacitors work together as tuned circuits.

Source by John Allsopp

An Eccentric Lifestyle Popular in the Early 19th Century Has Left Us the Graham Cracker and More!

The Presbyterian Reverend Sylvester Graham, an early 19th century proponent of an extreme, aesthetic lifestyle, is largely forgotten today. During his life, however, he was amazingly popular and many of the theories he espoused are actually popular to this day, though he is rarely credited with their acceptance. He was also widely reviled and a controversial figure of derision.

Rev. Graham promoted a strict form of vegetarianism at a time when meat was a staple and considered essential to a healthy lifestyle. He held a number of extremely controversial diet and wellness ideas which he championed and was militant in defending. His followers were so dedicated that they became known as Grahamites.

Speaking before adoring crowds, Rev. Graham spoke boldly and powerfully against women wearing corsets, any type of gratuitous sexual activity and nihilism. His encouragement of a Spartan lifestyle was widely reported in the media.

In an age when bathing was rare and oral care primitive Grahamites practiced both; daily and religiously. Temperance was strictly enforced among Grahamites. Excitement was discouraged. They also did not use spices to enrich the taste of food, as these additives were considered to excite the senses and encourage sexual activity. Consuming meat, butter and white bread were forbidden. Especially white bread!

The elimination of white flour from their diet became central to the lifestyle and philosophy of Grahamites. Rev. Graham preached about the evils of white flour which was considered crucial by bakers in producing whiter loaves and more commercially appealing bread. He despised any food that contained additives and chemicals. Darker types of bread were considered a foodstuff for the lower classes during the Industrial Revolution. Graham set out to change this perception.

He created the recipe for Graham bread. It was made from un-sifted flour and contained no alum or chlorine, both present in the white bread of that time. He believed that bread should be coarse not fluffy and uniform like the loaves then being mass produced in industrial bakeries. A variant of the recipe for Graham bread lead to the creation of Graham crackers, popular to this day. Grahamites consumed massive quantities of Graham crackers to supplement their exceedingly bland diet.

Grahamism died out soon after Rev. Sylvester Graham’s death in 1857. His death in Northampton, Massachusetts, where a restaurant named Sylvester’s stands on the site of his home, marked the zenith of his movement. His influence, however, had touched such important Americans as Horace Greeley, Dr. John Harvey Kellogg and his brother William Kellogg. Their creation of Kellogg’s Corn Flakes, and founding of the Battle Creek Institute, was heavily linked to their belief in Grahamism.

It has been over 150 years since the death of Rev. Sylvester Graham. It is generally forgotten that he is responsible for the creation of ubiquitous Graham Crackers, still found in most home larders. And yet, many of the principle ideas which he pioneered and were forgotten after he was deceased are again au courant today.

Modern nutritionists strongly endorse limiting the consumption of meat and refined, processed foods in the diet. Dark, multi-grain breads are promoted as key elements of a healthy diet. A vegetarian or vegan type of diet is increasingly popular. Daily bathing and proper oral care are cornerstones of hygiene and personal care. All of these ideas were key, if controversial planks in the philosophy that was central the Grahamist lifestyle. Today we accept them as factual truths, supported by science and research data.

Source by Geoff Ficke

Type 2 Diabetes – What Helps You to Achieve Lower Blood Sugar Levels and Weight Loss?

You may be surprised to know there is an order in which you should eat the primary macronutrients on your plate. By macronutrients, we are referring to carbohydrates, protein, and fat. These are the big three that supply your body with essential energy in the form of calories, not to mention vitamins and minerals.

Before we begin, never forget all three macros are necessary. Your diet should include carbohydrates, protein, and fats in adequate proportions. Even if you are a Type 2 diabetic, you should not be eliminating all carbohydrates from your eating plan. That being said, you can certainly control your intake of refined carbs and starchy vegetables, which we advise if your aim is to lower your blood sugar levels and lose weight.

On that note, we are going to give you some ideas on how to make the most of your meals, physiologically speaking. Most people are not aware there is an order helpful to follow. In short, you should be leaving most of your simple carbs or starchy foods for last. This is for multiple reasons:

  • eating simple carbs last will minimize the blood sugar spike following a meal since fats and proteins are being metabolized first
  • eating protein first ensures you will have room for the protein food, which could not be the case if you eat mostly starchy foods such as rice, potatoes, or bread beforehand
  • eating meat and fibrous vegetables before any simple carbs will help with satiety: protein is filling, and the fiber in the vegetables will help you to feel satisfied with a lesser amount of food
  • protein sources usually contain more vitamins and minerals than carbohydrate sources with the exception of vegetables. If you are trying to lose weight, limit your starchy food intake, not your protein consumption.

We must make one thing clear: vegetables are a type of carbohydrate. But they are a different kind – they are classed as complex carbs that don’t typically spike your blood sugar. The same cannot be said for rice, pasta, potatoes, and bread. So when we say you should eat carbs last, we are talking about simple carbs. Simple carbs are usually of a softer texture, examples include bread and rice.

Eat your vegetables first along with your meat. It is an excellent way to ensure you are not full before you finish that part of your meal. The difference eating meat and vegetables first makes cannot be overstated, particularly if you are working on lowering your blood sugar levels and increasing your weight loss. This can also help you weaken your need for starchy foods.

Give it a try. While the results may not be immediate, we are sure you will be happy with the progress you make in the not too distant future.

Source by Beverleigh H Piepers

Enduring the Unending Grief of Alzheimer’s Disease

Living through, surviving, withstanding, bearing, experiencing, braving, undergoing, tolerating, suffering, stomaching, persevering through, carrying on even though, lasting – all are synonyms for ENDURING. Each word carries a special and unique connotation today and all of this may change tomorrow. Living through grief provides hope that day-by day the one suffering can make it through with shreds of sanity and love in tact. Surviving or suffering sound much more trying – and exhausting. Bearing and bracing offer strength. Stomaching strikes me as the internal turmoil of decision and indecision. How do you best help? How do you make the right decisions? How do you get up and drag through another day with hope when there is no hope?

Grief comes at many times throughout life – the loss of a pet, moving to a new town, the death of a beloved grandma or grandpa. Living removes those we love as it teaches to navigate the pain of loss until we meet life for the living once again. Some endure in silence; others shout in pain; some refocus quickly while others do not. There is no right or wrong just as there is no confirmed, verified “normal” path for grief. Perhaps that is one of the most important lessons in forgiveness and understanding: each of us is diverse in infinite ways.

Alzheimer’s disease repeated death as one loses functions and abilities again and again. These are intertwined with a sort of rebirth. Aunt Sally forgets today, remembers every detail tomorrow, cries inconsolably on Thursday, and recalls none of the week by Friday. This week she is with it and on the go. Next week she accuses you of theft, gives away her precious Christmas ornaments, and then butters her bread with soap. But wait… Saturday is better, the conversation flows, just about everything makes sense, until the jam is served with mold and dirty dishes now serve as garden stepping stones.

And so the steps of grief wander and take on odd appearances as today you deny, tomorrow you are angered, and next week regret grasps your every move. The steps of grief vary in order and in intensity; what seems right becomes wrong; what was so wrong now feels so right. You are confused, almost as confused as the family member you love and are attending to.

  • Denial – Denial is the absolute refusal to admit or even consider that there is a problem, a worry, and a concern. Ah, there is bliss and safety in pegging odd moments onto forgetfulness! Denial is safe, secure, and offers protection from reality. Some may never emerge from this stage; others readily accept a diagnosis and medical evidence and prepare to move forward in understanding this disease.
  • Admitting – A first step in moving forward with confronting Alzheimer’s disease is admitting that a problem exists. When homes are left unlocked, driving leads to tickets, and money disappears, help is needed. Acknowledging the need brings proper diagnosis and supportive information and guidance. Many health issues manifest themselves in ways similar to Alzheimer’s disease (agitation, forgetfulness, stress, or depression, for example). A qualified gerontologist and neurologist assure that you receive proper information and advice so that interventions for a better life may be made.
  • Anger – Anger is a demon of rage and may arrive and take hold of the victim or of the caregiver and family. This anger may be self-contained anguish or it may be something vented on others even when there is no plausible cause for such reaction. Anger often comes and then goes when bits of hope and reassurance appear only to explode in unexpected blasts. Diverting anger into safer methods of dealing with it may help: running, building models and participating in crafts, writing and raving and then tearing up the paper and tossing in it into the garbage, or screaming into the wind are tools that have helped me.
  • Blame – Blame is often tagged to place the fault on someone or something else or even on the victim himself. Sometimes there are errors by doctors, family upheavals, or friends who seem unsupportive, but most often the blame on Alzheimer’s brings no positive results. Alzheimer’s is not something a victim wishes for or self-inflicts. It is not contagious, although it may be inherited. Working away from blame clears vision and is essential for renewing a positive outlook. Blame and anger working together greatly add to pain as they reduce the hope for healing and may cause harm to one’s health.
  • Helplessness – Helplessness often means giving up or falling on “Oh, well, there is nothing I [or anyone] can do.” While currently there is no cure, there are some drugs and treatments that are helpful especially after early detection. It is important to remember that the victim did not give herself this disease; it is also important to call for help to escape fugues of helplessness. Whether you are a victim or caregiver, support is critical to well being. No one has to travel the Alzheimer’s route alone. Helplessness can transform into hopelessness, and truly there is hope.
  • Guilt – Guilt is the feeling that this happened because of something you did or did not do; this may also extend to the “would have, could have, should have” sensation of regret in “If only I had… ” Children and adolescents often spend great amounts of time in this emotion as do families and friends who have parted from the victim in anger and have not found or created the opportunity to make up. You are not the cause of Alzheimer’s disease. Examining and releasing feelings of guilt build toward a positive attitude that is vital to good health.
  • Regret – Regret is many times tied to guilt but it also includes feelings of helplessness with less blame on the disease or the death and more blame on good times that could have been if only Alzheimer’s had not arrived. Know that good times are possible even under the shadow of Alzheimer’s. Regular routines, quiet walks, and avoiding confusion make life seem sort of “normal”. Every minute is precious and as times of cognizance become scattered and few, treasure them for the momentary flashes of reuniting that they provide. Regret may also be the wish that you had behaved differently. Since the past is impossible to rearrange work toward a happy now and happier tomorrow.
  • Forgiveness – Forgiveness means pardoning the disease, the victim, the loved one who has passed, the mistakes that have been made, or the difficulties that have arisen. Forgiveness most often takes time but it brings such relief and clarity of vision for the future. Forgiveness absorbs many negative emotions, empowers the forgiver, and leads to recovery and a belief in the goodness of living. Forgiveness enhances and revitalizes life.
  • Acceptance – Acceptance entails knowing that while the long journey of Alzheimer’s is devastating, there is also a need to move forward. It does not mean you have to forget or that the pain of loss will never return, but it does mean that the world can take on a lovely glow once again. Acceptance helps you surface from the whirlpool of grief to breathe wholeness (or near wholeness) once again.

Reflect on these stages of grief. Relate them to Alzheimer’s disease or relate them to any situation where overwhelming loss and pain exist. Modify and adjust to meet you needs, your understanding. Use them to help you recover and survive.

Source by Gini Cunningham

How and Why You Should Compare Insurance Quotes

Did you ever think that someday you would compare insurance quotes from the privacy of your own home? I bet you never thought that you would compare insurance quotes from a Panera Bread or WIFI hotspot. What a great world we live in these days. We can accomplish almost everything we need to sustain life-online.

Let's talk briefly about attaining car insurance. The main tip for buying your insurance online is to compare insurance quotes and compare policy content. This can be quite easy as there are websites that will do the work for you.

Just keep some things in mind while you compare insurance quotes:

Decide on what you "must" have
You need to decide what best suites your family's needs in the policy you are shopping for. Know the limits you need and any of the extra riders you may want on your policy before you start to compare insurance quotes.

Be completely honest
Your insurance company will want to know about that "fender bender" you may have had last month or the speeding ticket your teenage daughter received. Do not try and lie about these items, they will run a DMV history on each driver on your policy and find out anyway.You do not want to risk them increasing your rates after you've already attained the policy because you omitted some important details. So, be smart when you compare insurance quotes.

Consider taking defensive driver courses
There are courses that your states DMV offers that are usually reasonably priced (under $ 50.00) and only take a few hours to complete. Completing these courses will make your insurance company much happier and will lower your premiums. Take the whole family along – it can not hurt to teach your teenagers a thing or two about safe driving.

Know the key items that will trigger discounts
Of course every insurance carrier is different and will offer different details on your policy. There are some common items that most carriers will provide discounts for and it would be in your best interest to learn those.

I had been recently interested in possibly changing my insurance carrier to see if I could save some money, so I figured I would compare insurance quotes and see who was the cheapest. While I was talking on the phone to my current carrier, Progressive, I found out about three different programs that I could implement that would save me money.

After speaking with the agent, I ended up saving $ 125.00 a year from the three items I had changed. The great thing about the changes I made is that they will not affect me in anyway.

Read further for a few ways you can save when you compare insurance quotes.

  • Paying your premium in full for the year will create a cheaper premium. All insurance companies offer several options to make payments on your insurance policy but will charge you extra for the "luxury" of having those payments.
  • Giving all your business to one company can lower your premium. If you have a motorcycle, boat, motor home or other item you need to insure it will provide a good bargaining tool that you can negotiate with a carrier to get lower premiums.
  • Clean driving records are a great way to save money. Your tickets, accidents or other motor vehicle infractions will remain on your record for 3 years and your insurance company will increase the premiums as they view you as a risky driver.
  • If you can not get your teen driver to study, here is a good way to encourage them. A lot of insurance companies will offer a discount for teen drivers if they maintain an AB average in school. You can make your teen responsible to pay the difference the insurance company will charge you if they do not sustain an AB average.
  • I recently found out that my insurance carrier, Progressive, offers a discount if I chose to be paperless. This means you no longer receive those pages and pages of policy information that you never read anyway. You can easily log onto the carriers website to print up any needed documents. We all need to do our part to save a few trees and this will save a tree and will save a few pennies.

Of course there are many more discount opportunities; you should do your homework before you compare insurance quotes. Being prepared with knowledge is going to give you leverage when it comes time to haggle with your carrier.

Source by Dylan S. Barrett

The Top 5 Most Unusual Wedding Gift Ideas

Finding unique wedding gifts can be a challenge, but there are plenty of options out there if you know where to look. If you’ve received an invitation and you’re panicking about what to take with you on the day, read on to discover five of the most unusual present ideas.

A personalised chopping board is a great option Everybody uses a chopping board, whether it’s to finely dice ingredients for another culinary masterpiece, or simply to slice the bread for their toast in the morning. But this present doesn’t have to be entirely functional. Why not seek out a gift retailer who specialises in bespoke items? You’ll want to opt for something of the highest quality – such as solid oak, but that you can also have engraved to convey a special message or the couples’ married names.

Secondly, you can always turn to alcoholic presents. It may seem like an obvious choice, but who doesn’t love to indulge in a glass of champagne or whisky on their wedding day? Besides, you can easily go against the grain by giving them a personalised bottle to hold their tipple of choice. Alcohol is always received gratuitously, and a personalised element will set it apart from the rest and give the couple a keepsake to cherish.You can choose to have anything you like printed on the label of the bottle, but the most popular choice is the couples’ names, followed by the date of their nuptials and a special message. Be sure to find a company who not only offer a professional customisation service, but also a premium alcohol – the last thing you want is for your bride and groom not to enjoy their special present.

Alternatively, a unique keepsake box is an incredibly thoughtful wedding present. Their will likely be an assortment of precious items that the bride and groom will want to treasure – including wedding invitations, sprinklings of confetti, photographs, a pressed flower from the bouquet, or a brochure from the venue they tied the knot in. There are design companies out there who will provide a beautiful, wooden box with a latch, as well as the engraving on the lid. You could even opt for a secret message to be displayed inside, or a personal congratulatory message. As an extra thoughtful touch, why not offer to be in charge of the keepsake box on the day? The bride and groom will no doubt be busy entertaining their guests, so will need someone who’s not so preoccupied to remember to collect bits and bobs for their treasure trove.

An engraved vintage teaspoon set is a really special gift to bestow. You can source beautiful spoons online, some of which are made from real vintage materials. Imagine the couple starting off their morning by stirring a coffee with their own engraved teaspoons, given by a special friend on their wedding day. These spoons could display matching engravings, their wedding date for example, ‘Mr and Mrs’, or an in-joke and punchline. Let your imagination roam free.

Last but not least, are personalised coasters. This may sound like a drab gift option, but coasters can add an incredibly decorative touch to a home. Plus, think about how often these newlyweds will make themselves cups of tea or coffee? A set of personalised coasters will make them smile every time they set down their drink. You could choose to have them engraved with a funny quote, their married names or the date that they tied the knot – the opportunities are endless. Opt for a good quality material that will look great and remain durable. Solid beech wood coasters are an ideal option as they can be used for years and will look attractive on their coffee table. For an extra special touch, why not present them in a beautiful, bespoke gift box?

So, whatever your bride and groom’s tastes, there are options out there to appease every happy couple. Be sure to browse the internet for more thoughtful present options – happy gifting!

Source by Mike Chamberlain

How To Lose That Pot Belly – Ten Ways To Have A Flat Stomach Without Sit-Ups!

Weight loss is a mental and physical process. First you must have a strong will to lose weight and look great. So when you’ve made up your mind to lose weight and melt off all the fats in your body, you should make that commitment and go into it with a positive attitude. Second is a physical process, you should work out, cardio workout is a great way to lose weight.The thought of losing that pot belly with cardio (treadmill, elliptical, stationary bike and step aerobics etc etc) and sit ups can be daunting or intimidating and we always think that Wouldn’t it be great if somebody could wave a magic wand over my head and make those extra pounds and pot belly disappear and give me six packs abs? But it is not possible. Slimming down takes time and sweat if you do not have the right method, approaches, and encouragement to assist you along.

So is there any magical way that we dont have to do these painfull situps and still we can lose weight and get a flat abs?

Ofcourse with the right directions and an accurate guideline, it is possible to get a flat stomach and look great and here are these ten simple and useful tips and method you can adopt easily and get your desire results.


whether it is a weight loss or a better job, When ever you want to achieve something in life you must think like a winner. Always go at it with a positive set of mind and commitment. Slimming down and losing weight is not just about diets. It’s about a entirely fresh you and the possibility of creating afresh life for yourself.


You can lose fifty pounds in a week if you do physical exercise twelve hours a day and consume nothing but celery, it is not realistic and a human cant do it. Always keep in mind that Slow and steady wins the race. Set your small achieveable and realistic goals, do not bite off more than you can chew. . In the end, you’ll have accomplished more.


Walking for weight loss is the easy, Fun, cheap and low impact form of exercise to incorporate into day-to-day life. Walking for weight loss is a easiest weight loss exercise that provides an alternative to increase the calorie deficit required to induce weight loss. It is one of the best methods to slim down.


Always maintain a food dairy of what you had eaten and what you will eat. Eat five small meals a day instead of taking three big meals a day and always start your day with a break fast and stop eating three hours before going to bed.


Did you know that white bread isn’t healthy? Oh, it’s true, just ask any diabetic. Research has shown that people who eat more refined products like white bread are more expected to have belly fat.


Never go to shopping when you are hungry or you will end up buying more fattening food. Best thing is to eat before going for food shopping and always prepare a grocery list. Only buy food which relates to your each week diet program.


Weight yourself once every week and maintain your weight loss record.


Never Skip your meals because eating step-ups your matabolism so skipping meals can slow down your metabolism. Always eat slowly and chew each bite completely to decrease your appetite.Chew everything from 10 to 20 times and count. Drinking hot water as instead of cold water can step-up the speed of your metabolism and burn more calories.


Always try to make dishes like Omelettes using egg white only. it is very low in fat and high in protein.


When you are on your way to achieve any goal you set for your self you always need a moral support and a best moral support can be from the person you already achieve the goal or trying to achieve. thats why find a weight loss buddy or join support group. This will help you stay with your goal.

In the end I must say that you should Lose weight for yourself, not to please your love ones like your parents or your friends etc and Drink at least eight glasses of water a day. Water itself helps cut down on water retention because it acts as a diuretic.

Source by Kamran Minhas

Solar Cookers – The Pros and Cons of the Different Types

One of the primary things to consider when buying or making a solar oven is; “what kind of foods are you planning to cook.”

This may seem obvious but it will have an effect on the ease of use, effectiveness and cooking results of different foods while using a solar cooker.

You can, of course cover all bases by building or purchasing one of each style of solar cooker,( as many people do) which would greatly increase you cooking capacity and reduce the length of cook time.

You might ask yourself; am I mostly interested in baked goods such as breads, cakes, cookies etc., or do I want to do more of the high moisture content dishes such as soups, stews, chilies and meats that are ideal for slow, low temperature cooking?

Most all of the solar cookers available in the three main classes can cook a large range of foods whether dry or moist, but some are more suited to specific kinds of foods than are others.

A good sized box cooker is capable of baking foods on a tray/baking sheet and at the same time can cook together a pot of fresh vegetables or a soup with the same satisfactory results.

Generally a box cooker, with the aid of panel reflectors, can reach very hot temperatures which are ideal for most general baking needs, but will do great for moist foods as well.

* Note: Most traditional method cookbooks will state specific temperatures for baking cakes, pies or cookies.

But you will soon find out that you can cook just fine; pretty much any kind of pastry, in a solar oven.

The most notable difference will be the lengths of time due to a lower cooking temperature…remember it just takes longer using a solar cooker.

…it is not always possible, nor is it necessary to maintain a cooking temperature of 300° F or higher in order to cook baked goods.

Higher temperatures indicated in traditional cook books are designed more for convenience, (time) and for browning, crisping, or setting of cakes and pastries. *

Solar Box cookers will usually maintain cooking temperatures between 200° F up to 350° F., depending on the type of food being cooked.

This style of solar cooker is also quite safe and usually requires very little supervision and guidance since it is difficult to burn or scorch the food.

A solar panel cooker will usually consist of a pot/pan with a plastic or glass enclosure nestled into a, three up to five sided, reflective panel for better concentration of the suns rays.

Most panel cookers are used for the cooking of foods with higher moisture content, as was previously mentioned.

But you can bake items in a panel cooker pot/pan, even though it is a little bit more challenging and restrictive with some items.

A panel cooker will usually maintain cooking temperatures between 200° F to 250° F, which is more than sufficient for most all foods.

A panel cooker does not require adjustment or alignment as often as say, a parabolic cooker.

A solar panel cooker is also one of the easiest and least expensive to make using common materials found in the home or at a hardware store.

Minimal ability and supervision is required to use a cooker of this style, and even some young children can be taught to safely use one.

Remember also, it is quite difficult to burn or overcook food in this kind of cooker.

A Parabolic Solar Cooker is generally capable of maintaining higher cooking temperatures than a box or panel style cooker and therefore can be used for grilling and even frying.

The single biggest drawback to a parabolic cooker is the need to adjust the angle and direction of the cooker more frequently than other styles of cookers, for maximum cooking efficiency.

Usually the amount of food that can be cooked at one time in a parabolic is less than in a box or panel cooker due to the size of the cooking pot or pan.

But, because the parabolic can achieve higher temperatures, and do so more quickly, foods can be cooked quicker, allowing for more individual meals to be cooked.

Due to higher temperatures and the more frequent need to adjust the cooker, an experienced user/cook is recommended while cooking as opposed to the lesser necessity with box or panel cookers.

The second most common drawback to a parabolic cooker is the higher complexity in design and build.

Many people have built very efficient and practical parabolic cookers from scratch using readily available materials, but most will admit they are more involved than other styles of solar cookers.

These cookers are usually more expensive to make, and the commercially manufactured ones, though of high quality, are also more expensive.

Well built cookers of all classes and styles though, will usually last you for years, and will provide many delicious meals if they are taken care of and treated properly.

For more information on practical application and use of the different kinds of solar cookers you can visit our site at solarcooker-at-cantinawest.com

Source by Nathan Parry

3 Books on Current Affairs to Read If You Love Politics

Do you really make yourselves believe you are governed by a democracy? If that were the case, as we have been made to believe over the years, why is that candidates – both democrats and republicans – spend billions of dollars to win elections? You know, it’s interesting how we think we are better than others, when that is not the truth. Three books to read if you love politics: 12 Hour Work Days-Helicopter Parents-Serving One Purpose and Abandoning the Other, Why It Is Easy To Control People When They Are Afraid – Trump’s Motivation of Power and His Admiration of Putin, The Numbers Game.

We cannot celebrate our freedoms if we can’t afford a slice of bread, work our fingers to the bone for a single meal, while the United States members of congress, house of representatives go on a rampage, running billion dollar campaigns, and behave as though they are under no obligation to raise minimum wage, vote to confirm Merrick Garland, etc, that is a problem. Democracy cannot be bought with any amount of money, no matter how small. Democracy must be free, and citizens get to decide who leads them.

What happens when there’s so much money involved in the political process is that the very concept of democracy, true democracy, is diminished. Those that spend their money on financing their candidates get the final say, whether or not it is in the best interest of the middle-class.

The working-poor were written-off before they ever got here. Every country across the globe – big and small – are corrupt and ineffective. Their leaders care nothing of their citizens, but themselves. Thinking of some countries as civilized… others not… buys you into their narrative of corrupt governing methods where whoever is with the most money has the loudest voice.

It is through putting and end to private campaign donations will genuine change take root. Nothing will change if we keep tolerating greed, corrupt campaigns, loud-mouthed politicians, tough talk, partisan politics, no oversight of any sort, and etc.

Democracy is when each person casts one vote for a candidate they believe is highly qualified, not duped into casting a vote for a candidate whose spending methods are shady, dubious, and mafia-like. It doesn’t make sense to cast a vote for a gangster-like government, where the safety and well-being of the citizens is a non-starter. Trump and Clinton, really? What an embarrassment! Then there’s Rudy Giuliani, Newt Gingrich, both with Alzheimer s-like symptoms! Are you freaking kidding me?

I don’t understand why our voice does not account for anything any more. This year’s election’s broken records in terms of polarization, hate, division, discrimination, and etc. That must change; let’s get back to the basics – respect, discipline.

Source by Viora Mayobo

Why Constipation Causes Weight Gain

In a way, it might be said that Constipation causes perceived weight gain. What that means is that you can carry as much as 30 lbs. of impacted feces, which, of course, shows on the scale and on your gut. But, it isn’t weight gain in the classic sense. In other words, it isn’t fat or muscle. It is feces, undigested food, mucous and other debris.

Theoretically, if you could have a 30-lb bowel movement, the excess weight would be gone, but that is unlikely.

The most important thing to learn is that the condition of being severely impacted is dangerous and unhealthy. Sometimes surgical intervention is required. It is best to handle constipation before it gets out of control.

If you have gone one week without a bowel movement, it isn’t too soon to address your condition. You are Constipated! At this early stage, it can be handled by a change in diet and some natural supplements.

Eat healthy foods. You will lose weight and eliminate constipation. Don’t worry about the amount of food you are eating. But, try to make consistently better choices for yourself. Even if you are stuck with friends at a fast food restaurant, order the salad.

For a while, eliminate wheat, sugar and dairy. That means no bread, cheese, or ice cream/milk for a while. These foods are very hard on your digestive system and cause constipation and weight gain. Instead, eat lots of salads and small amounts of chicken or fish. Use healthy dressings with no sugar added. No pasta, potatoes, white rice, or pizza-just for a little while. You can have a small amount of brown rice at dinner.

Take a tablespoon of psyllium in water or juice morning and evening before bed. Metamucil is a psyllium product. You can find other brands at your health food store. Make sure they are pure psyllium with no additives.

Drink your allotment of water. That would be at least eight glasses a day. Water is great for flushing toxins from the cells of your body. Additionally, it will help you stay hydrated and begin to loosen impacted feces.

Walking is a great way to get the system moving. Walk a mile five times a week. If you have some free weights, lift those while you watch TV. I use a small trampoline and 8-lb. weights. It’s an easy way to get in my daily exercise.

Take a supplement designed specifically to support the colon. It is a great constipation remedy. I have a free trial offer at the end of this article. These all-natural herbal supplements are perfect for constipation relief. They clean you out and sooth the entire digestive system.

It is said that if your intestines are healthy, your whole system is healthy!

Source by Christine C Strong